Credit where credit is due

Max Pointner, issue writer and image researcher at CH, has an undergraduate degree in art history from Wheaton. He teaches history, literature, and Latin at Charis Classical Academy in Madison, Wisconsin, and directs the Charis theater program. He and his wife, Madeleine, are expecting their first child.

[Above: Sandro Botticelli, Saint Augustine in His Study, 1480]

p. 2 Isaac Fanous, SAINT Athanasius the Apostolic at the Council of Nicea. 20th-c. coptic icon—Holy Virgin Mary AND St. Pishoy Coptic Orthodox Church, Los Angeles / Courtesy of

P. 3 [Detail from the martyrdom of the twelve apostles] Gregory of Nazianzus, manuscript dedicated to Emperor Basil I the Macedonian. Greek 510, f.264v. 879 to 883—National Library of France

• Stained glass window in Notre-Dame de Chartres cathedral, facade: the birth of Christ—Vassil / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Marc Chagall, Exodus. 1952. Oil on Linen Canvas—© RMN-Grand Palais / Art Resource, NY / © 2022 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

p. 4 Tombstone of SAINT Thomas. Ortona, Abruzzo, Italy. Saint Thomas, the apostle—Rupert Hansen / Alamy Stock Photo

• Restored Catacombs of Priscilla, Rome—Eric Vandeville /akg-images

p. 5 Saint Mark from MS 105 (Getty museum)—Ethiopian Gospel Book FOL. 82V—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 6 Crucifixion of Saint Peter. Part of the predella of the Pisa altarpiece. 1426. Oil on poplar. Inv. 58 B—Joerg P. Anders / Art Resource, NY

Beheading of the apostle Paul, Basilica of StS. Peter and Paul, Petersberg, Bavaria. Wall painting 1107 to 1110—GFreihalter / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 7 [Martyrdom of the twelve apostles], Gregory of Nazianzus, manuscript dedicated to Emperor Basil I the Macedonian. Greek 510, f.264v. 879 to 883—National Library of France

p. 8 Arch of Titus, relief triumph, Forum Romanum, Rome, Italy—Jebulon / [CC0] Wikimedia

• The Arch of Titus, Upper Via Sacra, Rome—Carole Raddato / [CC BY-SA 2.0] Wikimedia

p. 9 Arch of Titus, relief Jerusalem treasure, Forum Romanum, Rome, Italy—Jebulon / [CC0]

• P.Oxy.LXXVIII 5129. Justin Martyr, First Apology 50.12, 51.4-5. W. B. Henry. Papyrology Rooms, Sackler Library, Oxford—Oxyrhynchus Online

p. 10 Charles Rohrbacher, Icon of SAINT Justin Martyr. 1999, Anaheim, CA—Courtesy of ST. Justin Martyr Roman Catholic Church

p. 11 SAINT Irenaeus of Lyons—World History Archive / Alamy Stock Photo

• Christ with donkey’s head, “Alexamenos worships his god,” Wall carving, between AD 192 and 235. Rome, Museo Palatino—akg-images

• Catacombs of Santa Savinilla, Nepi, Viterbo, Lazio, Italy—robertharding / Alamy Stock Photo

pp. 12, 13 Baptistry wall paintings: Christ Healing the Paralytic, Good Shepherd and Adam and Eve, Christ Walking on Water. c. AD 232, Syria—Yale University Art Gallery

• Remains of the Christian church, Dura-Europos, Syria—agefotostock / Alamy Stock

p. 13 Henry Pearson, Isometric Drawing of the Christian Baptistry—Dura-Europos Collection / Yale University Art Gallery

• Baptismal Font, Christian Building. Excavation Photograph—Dura-Europos Collection / Yale University Art Gallery

p. 14 Origen Illustration. c. 1160, Clm 17092, fol. 130v—Catalog of the illuminated manuscripts of the Bavarian State Library in Munich

• Bust of Decius, Capitoline Museums—© José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

• Aurelia Bellias, Libellus of the Decian Persecution, June 21, 250 AD, Egypt. P.Mich.inv. 263; Recto—Papyrology Collection / University of Michigan Library

• Briton Rivière, A Roman Holiday, 1881. Oil on Canvas. National Gallery of Victoria—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Papyrus Bodmer VIII—Papyrus 72, original from the Vatican Apostolic Library; end of the First Letter of Peter and beginning of the Second Letter of Peter—Vatican Apostolic Library / Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 15 Osservanza Master, Saint Anthony, the Abbot in the Wilderness, 1435—FineArt / Alamy Stock Photo

The anchronites, Trinity Chapel in Lublin, West wall nave—Hans A. Rosbach / [CC-BY-SA 3.0, CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 16 Head of Statue of Diocletian, Roman Asia Minor, c. 295 to 300. Art Institute of Chicago—Sailko / [CC BY 3.0] Wikimedia

• Henryk Siemiradzki, Scene of the Martyrdom of the First Christians, 1885. Oil on Canvas—Public domain / National Digital Museum in Warsaw

Saint Gregory the Illuminator and Agathangelos before King Tiridates, 1569. Matenadaran—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 17 Monasterio Khor Virap, Armenia, 2016—Diego Delso / [CC BY-SA 4.0]

p. 18 Menologion of Basil II, Peter the Archbishop of Alexandria. 985, Constantinople. Vat. gr. 1613, p. 205—© Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

• Battle of Milvian Bridge, Relief, Arch of Constantine, Rome—Dietmar Rabich / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

• Fragments from a colossal statue of Constantine the Great (marble). Musei Capitolini, Rome, Italy—Vincenzo Pirozzi / Bridgeman Images

p. 19 Domenico Tasselli, Reconstruction of the interior of Old St Peter’s. 1500 to 1550, Sacresty, Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican—Public domain,

p. 20 Tombs of Mirian III and Nana of Iberia, Samtavro Monastery—George Yakovlev / [CC BY-SA 2.0] Wikimedia

• Detail: Icon with Six Saints, the First Council of Nicaea and the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste. 18th c., Balkan (Romania?). egg tempera with gold leaf on wood prepared with cloth and gesso. 1994,0102.7—[CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] © The Trustees of the British Museum

p. 21 P.Oxy.XVII 2067, Nicene Creed, ed. A. S. Hunt. Papyrology Rooms, Sackler Library, Oxford—Oxyrhynchus Online 

• Page from the Codex Sinaiticus (vellum), 4th c. AD, Monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt—Photo © Zev Radovan / Bridgeman Images

• ST. Catherine Monastery and Surrounding Mountains Panorama, 2011—KaiAbuSir / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 22 Gold coin with Half-Length busts of Ezanas, flanked by two wheat-stalks, the whole in a beaded circle; Obverse: Crowned, holding stick or sceptre; Reverse: wearing headcloth, holding branch. c. 340 to 400, Aksum, Tigray, Ethiopia—© The Trustees of the British Museum

• Mosaic of Saint Ambrose, Capilla San Vitore, Milan, Italy—Album / Alamy Stock Photo.

• Michael Damaskenos, Saint AthanasiuS, 16th c.—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 23 Plate with Shapur II in hunting scene, Iran, Sasanian period, 4th century AD, silver and gilt. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery—Daderot / [CC0] Wikimedia

p. 24 Vazelon Monastery, main building. c. 270 to 317 AD, Pontic Mountains, Turkey—Ingo Leonard / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

• SAINT Basil the Great and SAINT Gregory Fresco, 10th to 11th c., Eski Gumus Monastery, Cappadocia, Turkey—G. Dagli Orti /© NPL-DeA Picture Library / Bridgeman Images

• Codex Argenteus, “Gothic Silver Bible,” f.16v. c. 500. Uppsala University Library—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 25 Gregory of Nazianzus addresses the emperor Theodosius I. Greek 510, f.239r. 879 to 883—National Library of France / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia Commons

p. 26 The First Council of Constantinople, wall painting at the church of Stavropoleos, Bucharest, Romania.—Kostisl / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Prophet Mani on Manichaean Seal, Convex face. 3rd c., Syria. Rock crystal—National Library of France

p. 27 Benozzo Gossoli, Scenes from the life of Saint Augustine: Saint Augustine Triumphs over the Heretic Fortunato, Saint Augustine in his study with a vision of Saint Jerome, SAINT Ambrose baptizes St. Augustine, Saint Augustine reading the epistles of Saint Paul. 1460s, S. Agostino, San Gimignano, Italy—Scala / Art Resource, NY

p. 28 Taddeo Crivelli, Saint Jerome in the Desert, mid-15th c.—Getty Center / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Boris Anrep, St. Patrick on the Hill of Slane. 1948, Cathedral of Christ the King, Mullingar, Ireland—Photo: Rev Robert McCabe / Used by kind permission of St Finian’s Diocesan Trust

p. 29 The Fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon. Narthex fresco, Church of Saint Athanasius the Athonite, Great Lavra, Mount Athos—Courtesy

p. 30 Binding Abbā Garimā Gospel. 6th C., Tegrāy, Ethiopia—ETHIOPIAN HERITAGE FUND / HMML Reading Room (

• The murals of the Abuna Yemata Guh rock hewn church. Tigray, Ethiopia—Melnik Vladimir Mikhailovich / [CC BY 4.0] Wikimedia

p. 31 SAINT Mark, Spread with SAINT Luke, Abbā Garimā Gospel 2. 6th C., Tegrāy, Ethiopia—ETHIOPIAN HERITAGE FUND / HMML Reading Room (

• Abuma Yemata Entrance, Tigray, Ethiopia. 2020—Evan Williams / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

Timeline inside The healing of a bleeding woman, Rome, Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter. 4th c.—Unknown author / Public domain, Wikimedia

Madonna and Child. HAGIA Sophia—© Doug Johnson, used by permission

• Attr. Dunois Master, Martyrdom of St Mark the Evangelist. 1443–1445, Paris. Chester Beatty Library W 082, f.270r—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Jaume Huguet, The Crucifixion of Saint Peter. 15th c. Museum of Fine Arts Ghent—[CC0] Wikimedia

• Krak des Chevaliers Crusader Castle, Syria—© Vyacheslav Argenberg / [CC BY 4.0] Wikimedia

• Giotto, SAINT Francis Preaching before Honorius III. Before 1337, Basilica of San Francesco d’Assisi—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Page from the manuscript Sermones of Innocent III. Early 13th c. Prague, Národni knihovna, XXIII F 144 (Lobkowitz 406; formerly Weissenau Monastery)—Unknown author / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Étienne Dupérac, Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae: Longitudinal Section Showing the Interior of Saint Peter’s Basilica as Conceived by Michelangelo. 1596. Metropolitan Museum of Art—[CC0] Wikimedia

• Sculpture Symbolizing Ecumenical Movement, World Council of Churches. 1968, Geneva.—MHM55 / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

Timeline outside Christ Pantocrator Mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey—© Doug Johnson, used by permission

p. 34 Emperor Iustinianus and his suite, Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italia—Roger Culos / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

• Mosaic of Theodora, Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna—Petar Milošević / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

p. 35 Christ as Warrior Mosaic, Archiepiscopal Chapel, Ravenna—Incola / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

p. 36 Christ Pantocrator Mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey—© Doug Johnson, used by permission

p. 37 Wilhelm Salzenberg, Old Christian Monuments of Constantinople from the V. to the XII. Century. Plates IX and XXI—Images courtesy of the Cracow University of Technology Digital Library.

p. 38 View of Iona Abbey and Mull in background—allan wright / Alamy Stock Photo

• Gregory I, Antiphonary of Hartker of Sankt Gallen, Cod. Sang. 390, p. 13. c. 1000, Monastery of Saint Gall—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 39 Yan Liben, Emperor Taizong gives an audience to the ambassador of Tibet. 641 AD, Tang Dynasty—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Saint Columba, Iona Abbey, interior, view of stained glass window—Tom Parnell / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

• Mural from Nestorian Temple at Kocho: The Celebration of Palm Sunday. 7th to 8th c., Xinjiang, China. Colors on Clay—National Museums in Berlin, Museum of Asian Art / CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

p. 40 Bewcastle Cross, South and East Faces. 685 to 730 AD, Cumbria, England—Doug Sim / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

• The Galloway Hoard pectoral cross, Trewhiddle style, 9th c. Silver, gold, niello and animal gut. X.2018.12.23.—National Museums Scotland

p. 41 Whitby Abbey— / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia Commons

Charles Martel at Battle of Tours, Great Chronicles of France—Levan Ramishvili from Tbilisi, Georgia /Public domain, Wikimedia

The famous discussion between the Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I and the ‘Abbasid Caliph Mahdi. Syriac and Garshuni manuscripts: Mingana 17—The Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern Manuscripts / Cadbury Research Library: Special Collections, University of Birmingham

p. 42 Photograph of the Nestorian Stele, near Xi’an, China. 1859 to 1900. Gift of Benjamin Smith Lyman, 1896—Penn Museum

• Nestorian monk Jingjing, Nestorian Stele, Headstone. Facsimile—Public domain, Wikimedia Commons

• Equestrian statuette of Charlemagne, 9th c., Bronze. Louvre Museum—© Marie-Lan Nguyen / [CC-BY 2.5] Wikimedia Commons

p. 43 The Book of Kells, f.29r—Used by permission of The Board of Trinity College Dublin

p. 44 Icon of Saints Cyril & Methodius, 19th C., Russia—Artemis Gallery /

• Great Moravian silver cross with the image of the crucified Christ. 9th c., Mikulcice, Czech Republic—Azoor Photo / Alamy Stock Photo

P. 45 Cluny Abbey, May 2012—Michal Osmenda / [CC BY 2.0] Wikimedia

p. 46 Johann Leberecht Eggink, Prince Vladimir chooses a religion in 988. 1822, Oil on Canvas—Latvian National Museum of Art / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Kievan Rus, Vladimir I Svyatoslavich the Great, Type III. Struck c. 1010 to 1015—Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Saint Vladimir the Great with Saints Boris and Gleb, 1640s, Dormition Cathedral, Yaroslavl, Russia—Azoor Photo / Alamy Stock Photo

P. 47 Theotokos of Vladimir, 12th c.—Tretyakov Gallery / Public domain, Wikimedia

P. 48 Bishop Petros with Saint Peter, Faras. 974 to 997. Tempera on Plaster—National Museum in Warsaw / Public domain, Wikimedia

P. 48, 49 Ivories: Ivory Plaque with the Crucifixion. c. 1000, Cologne, Germany; Plaque with Agnus Dei on a Cross between Emblems of the Four Evangelists. 1000 to 1050, Benevento (?), Italy; Icon with the Virgin and Child. 10th to 11th C., Constantinople?; Pectoral with Christ and the Lamb of God and the Symbols of the Four Evangelists. 1000 to 1050, near Saint-Omer. Walrus ivory with gilt-copper sheets and copper alloy pin; Icon with the Crucifixion. mid-10th c., Constantinople; Tusk Fragment with Christ Enthroned. 810 to 1010 A.D., Egypt. Gifts of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917—Public domain, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

p. 50 Goðafoss, Iceland. 2020—Jonathan Miske / [CC BY-SA 2.0] Wikimedia

• Eyrarland statue of god Thor. c.1000, Iceland. Bronze. National Museum of Iceland, Reykjavik—Ray Swi-hymn / [CC BY-SA 2.0] Wikimedia

Landscape is the altar. Þorgeirskirkja by the lake Ljósavatn, Iceland. 2009—© Kristin Sig / Flickr 

p. 51 Þingvellir, Iceland. 2003—Jerzy Strzelecki / [CC BY 3.0 ] Wikimedia

p. 52 Anselm of Canterbury, Orationes: St. Anselm gives Mathilde his work. 1160, Diocese of Salzburg. Admont, Stiftsbibliothek, Ms. 289, fol. 1v—Public domain, Wikimedia

Consecration of the high altar of the Cluny abbey church by Pope Urban II, 25 October 1095. Miscellanea secundum usum ordinis Cluniacensis. 1190, BNF, Lat. 17716, fol. 91—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 53 Basilica of San Miniato al Monte. Florence, Italy—Xosema / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

p. 54 Le Chevalier au cygne, chanson de geste. 13th c., French. Ms 3139 fol. 176v— National Library of France, Arsenal Library 

• Fr 22495 f.43 Battle between Crusaders and Moslems, from Le Roman de Godefroi de Bouillon. 14thc., France. Vellum—Bridgeman Images

p. 55 Sword, double-edged with a single broad fuller. 13th c. Europe. Iron—© The Trustees of the British Museum

• Crusader Sword. Discovered by Shlomi Katzin.—Smithsonian Magazine / Nir Disteleld / Israel Antiquities Authority

Le Roman de Godefroi de Bouillon: The Council of Clermont and The Arrival of Pope Urban II in France. 14th c. French. Vellum. Ms Fr 22495 Fol.15—© Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris / Bridgeman Images

p. 56 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. 13th c. Museo de Mallorca, Palma, Mallorca, Spain—© Iberfoto / Bridgeman Images

• Basilica of Saint Denis, Nave. Saint-Denis, Paris, France—Capture 11 Photography / Jonathan Braid / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 57 Stained glass window in Notre-Dame de Chartres cathedral, facade: the birth of Christ—Vassil / Public domain, Wikimedia

P. 58 Peter Lombard, Liber Quatuor Sententiarum. c. 1160, France. Vellum. Bibliotheque Municipale, Valenciennes, France—Bridgeman Images

• Biete Ghiorgis from ETHIOPIA | Injera, Prehistoric Birds and Church of St. George, 2016. Lalibela, Ethiopia—VideoVision360 /

• Processional Cross. 13th to 14th c., Ethiopia. Bronze. Purchase, 2005 Benefit Fund, 2011—Public Domain, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

p. 59 Bet Abba Libanos. Lalibela, Ethiopia. 2009—Damien Halleux Radermecker / [CC BY-SA 2.0] Wikimedia

• Abba Libanos, Facade. Lalibela, Ethiopia. 2006—ctsnow / [CC BY 2.0] Wikimedia

p. 60 Giotto Di Bondone, Scenes from the Life of Saint Francis: Pope Innocent III Confirming the Rules of the Order of Saint Francis. Upper Church, S. Francesco, Assisi, Italy. Fresco—Alfredo Dagli Orti / Art Resource, NY

Santiago de Compostela: Cathedral at night. 2006—Yearofthedragon / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 61 Christ Church Cathedral, Nave. Oxford, England—Photo by David Iliff / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 62 Fourth Lateran Council from Mare historiarum ab orbe condito ad annum Christi 1250. 15th C. Ms. Latin 4915, f.398v—National Library of France

p. 63 Pope Innocent III. Mid-13th century, Monastery of Sacro Speco of Saint Benedict, Subiaco, Rome. Fresco—Carlo Raso / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Lippo Memmi and Francesco Traini, Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas. 1363—Sailko / [CC BY 3.0] Wikimedia

• Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologica. 1280, Paris. Parchment. Cod. Bodmer 161, f.213r—[CC BY-NC 4.0] Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer

p. 64 Unknown artist, A Seated Portrait of Ming Emperor Taizu. Mid-14th c., Ming Dynasty, China. Silk. National Palace Museum—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Fox & Geese misericord, Etchingham church. c. 1375, East Sussex, Great Britain—© Copyright Julian P. Guffogg [CC BY-SA 2.0]

• Fox and goose misericord, St Davids Cathedral interior, Pembrokeshire National Park, Wales, Cymru, United Kingdom— Peter Barritt / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 65 A fox stealing a goose misericord. S 10, Ripon Cathedral—© Glass Angel / flickr

• John Wycliffe, New Testament. Late 14th c., England. MS Hunter 191, ff104v-105r—used by permission of University of Glasgow Archives & Special Collections

p. 66 Andrey Rublëv, Holy Trinity Icon. 1425-1427, Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius Monastery, Russia. Tempera on Wood. Tretyakov Gallery—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 67 Anonymous, Andrei Rublev painting the Cathedral of the Savior in the Andronikov Monastery from Personal Life of St. Sergius. c. 1592. M.8663, fol. 230—Russian State Library, Moscow / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Ulrich Richental, Chronicle of the Council of Constance: King Sigismund and Pope John XXIII agree on the location of the council in Lodi. 1460–1464, Prague. XVI.A.17, f.114v-115r—courtesy of National Library of the Czech Republic

p. 68 Siege of Constantinople, Church of Moldovița Monastery, southern facade. 1535, Romania—Dirk D. / [CC BY-SA 3.0] Wikimedia

• 1454 Sophia, Constantinople. 2019. Illustration—Orlenov / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

p. 69 Jean Le Tavernier, Voyage en la terre d’oultre mer. 1455, Flanders. Français 9087, View 426—National Library of France

p. 70 Cell in San Marco, Florence. 2016—Dimitris Kamaras / [CC BY 2.0] Wikimedia

• Duomo, from the terrace of the Medici hotel. June 2014—Sailko / [CC BY 3.0] Wikimedia

p. 71 Sandro Botticelli and workshop, Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist. c. 1490, Italy. Tempera and oil on panel—Public domain, Wikimedia

• attr. Marco della Robbia, Bust of Gerolamo Savonarola. 1498—Antonio Quattrone / Museum of San Marco

p. 72 Facsimile of a page of The Gutenberg Bible or 42-line Bible, 1454—history_docu_photo / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 73 Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe. 1495, Spain. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Theodor de Bry, Les Grands Voyages: Christopher Columbus. 1596. Engraving—Rawpixel / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia Commons

p. 74 Bartolomé de las Casas, Brief account of the destruction of the Indies. 1552.—John Carter Brown Library / Public domain, Wikimedia

• after Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur, Personnages de Juida: King of Congo. Late 18th c.—Rama / Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 75 Ceiling of the Sistine chapel, Vatican City, Vatican, May 31, 2019—James Byard / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 76 Schleitheimer confession, printed by Peter Schöfferthe younger. 1527, Worms—Picture Museum Schleitheimertal

• Ludwig Rabus, Histories of the Holy Chosen Ones of God’s Witnesses: Luther at the Diet of Worms before the Emperor and Elector, 1521. 1557, Strasbourg—akg-images

• Martin Luther, Ninety-Five Theses. 1517, Nuremberg. Printed by Hieronymus Höltzel—[Library of Congress], World Digital Library

p. 77 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther as an Augustinian Monk. 1520. Engraving— [CC0] Wikimedia

p. 78 after Michael Herr, The Unchanged Augsburgian Confession of Faith. c. 1630, Bavaria. Engraving—© The Trustees of the British Museum

Colloquy of Marburg. 2008, Zwingli door of the Großmünster church in Zurich—Toksave / Public domain, Wikimedia

• Act of Supremacy, 1534. Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/PU/1/1534/26H8n1—Used by permission

• King Henry VIII as David, seated with harp, in an interior with his jester, William Sommers; illustrating Psalm 52. 1530 to 1547. Royal 2 A. XVI, f.63v—British Library / [CC0] Wikimedia

p. 79 Our Lady of Guadalupe, Notre Dame de Fourviere Basilica. Lyon, France.—Godong / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 80 André Reinoso, Saint Francis Xavier preaching in Goa. 1610. Museu de São Roque—Public domain, Wikimedia 

• Anonymous (formerly attr. Titian), Council of Trent. Mid-16th c., Italian. Oil on canvas. Louvre. Photo: Franck Raux—© RMN-Grand Palais / Art Resource, NY

• Kanō Naizen, Arrival of the Southern Barbarians (Nanban-jin) Screen. c. 1600, Japan. Paper and paint—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 81 Nicolaus Reusner, [John calvin] Icons or Images of Illustrious Men of Letters. 1587, Strasburg. Woodcut by Tobias Tuner—Jagiellonian Library / Public domain, Polona

p. 82 [stained glass window] John Knox’s House, 2014—gnomonic / [CC BY 2.0] Wikimedia 

• Thomas Cranmer, The booke of the common prayer and administracion of the sacramentes. 1549, London—Boston Public Library / Public domain,

• John White, Print Study of Native North American. 1585 to 1593, Virginia—© The Trustees of the British Museum

p. 83 Papal Basilica of St. Peter, Vatican: chancel with Bernini’s baldacchino altar under main dome—EThamPhoto / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 84 Saint John of the Cross and St. Teresa in the Plaza de las Carmelitas—Cosasdebeas / [CC BY-SA 4.0] Wikimedia

• Traditionally attr. Kano Tan’yu, Portrait of Tokugawa Ieyasu as a Shintō Deity Tōshō-daigongen. 17th c., Edo period. Owned by the 7th Owari Tokugawa Muneharu—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 85 First Edition of the King James Bible, 1611, open at the New Testament title page. Courtesy of the Reed Collection at Dunedin Public Library, New Zealand—Peter Righteous / Alamy Stock Photo

• Westminster Assembly, The Humble Advice of the Assembly of Divines, Now by Authority of Parliament Sitting at Westminster, Concerning a Confession of Faith. 1647, Edinburgh. Princeton Theological Seminary Library—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Matteo Ricci, photoed by Mountain, at Guangqi Park, Shanghai. Before 1610—Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 86 John and Charles Wesley, Hymns and Sacred Poems. 1743—David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University

• T. Blood, John Wesley preaching in the City Chapel. 1822, London. Engraving—Public domain, Wellcome Library

• Saint Herman of Alaska Icon. 2019, Spruce Island—Simon Scionka, Sacred Alaska Film

p. 87 John Bunyan, The Pilgrim’s Progress. 1679, London—© British Library Board, C.70.aa.3, frontispiece and title page

• William Henry Worthington, after Robert Home, William Carey and Mritunjaya. 1813. Line Engraving—[CC BY-NC-ND 3.0] © National Portrait Gallery, London

p. 88 Wedgewood Manufactory, Anti-Slavery Medallion. 1787, Burslem. Modeled by William Hackwood. Amelia Blanxius Memorial Collection, gift of Mrs. Emma B. Hodge and Mrs. Jene E. Bell—[CC0] Public domain, Art Institute of Chicago

• Robert H. Preston, Rev. John Keble—Wellcome Images / [CC BY 4.0] Wikimedia

• Anton Hickel, Portrait of William Wilberforce. 1794. oil on canvas—© Wilberforce House Museum / Bridgeman Images

p. 89 J. M. Kronheim and Company, The Missionary ship Duff arriving at Otaheite. c. 1820, London. Lithograph. National Library of New Zealand—Public domain, Wikimedia

• Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, Richard Allen illustration from Shadow and light; an autobiography with reminiscences of the last and present century. 1902—Wikimedia

p. 90 Phoebe Palmer, The Economy of Salvation. 1855, New York—Bridwell Library Special Collections, SMU.

Sojourner Truth seated with photograph of her grandson. 1863—Library of Congress / Public domain, Wikimedia

• China Inland Mission: Rev. J. Hudson Taylor & Wife, with Group of Christians. Late 19th c.—Public domain, Greater Grace World Outreach

p. 91 Samuel Adjai Crowther, Bishop of the Niger Territory; Henry Johnson , Archdeacon of the Upper Niger (1878); James Johnson, C.M.S. missionary, West Africa. 1873. Tait219f119—Archbishop’s Papers / Lambeth Palace Library

• John Walsh & Co., The oecumenical council of the Vatican, convened December 8th 1869. 1870, New York. Hand-colored lithograph—Popular Graphic Arts / Public domain, Wikimedia

p. 92 Amy Carmichael at Broughton Grange. Image from A Chance to Die: the life and legacy of Amy Carmichael, by Elisabeth Elliot, p.53—Public domain,

• Ross James, Mynydd Newydd Underground Chapel. Mid 20th c., Wales. Paint on paper—© Amgueddfa Cymru—National Museum Wales

• Namugongo catholic martyrs’ shrine, Kampala. Church door relief. Uganda—Godong / Alamy Stock Photo

p. 93 Pandita Ramabai. c. 1908. [P42112]—Used by permission of Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center

Azusa Street Mission (Los Angeles). 1928? [P0308]—Used by permission of Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center

p. 94 World Missionary Conference. 1910, Assembly Hall, New College, University of Edinburgh—Public domain, Wikimedia

Ouverture du Concile de Vatican II. 1962—Farabola / Bridgeman Images

p. 95 St. John Paul II and Mother Teresa of Calcutta—RealyEasyStar/ Fotografia Felici / Alamy Stock Photo

• Martin Luther King Jr. and Billy Graham. 1962, Chicago—Photo courtesy of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. Used with permission. All rights reserved

• Marc Chagall, Exodus. 1952. Oil on Linen Canvas—© RMN-Grand Palais / Art Resource, NY / © 2022 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

p. 100 Sandro Botticelli, Saint his study, 1480—[CC BY 3.0] Wikimedia

By collated by Max Pointner

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #144 in 2022]

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Sara Campbell and the editors

Erasmus: editor's note

Jennifer Woodruff Tait
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