[Above: Johanna Dorothea Sysang, Philipp Jacob Spener, 1775—Rijksmuseum / [cc0] Wikimedia]

Despite differences in regions, faith traditions, and theological convictions, the lives of many Great Awakening figures intersected in surprising ways. See the graphic, p.21 of the print magazine to keep them all straight.

Philipp SPENER (1635–1705) Lutheran: father of Lutheran Pietism and teacher at Leipzig; Zinzendorf ’s godfather

August Hermann FRANCKE (1663–1727) Lutheran: Pietist, Spener’s student; Zinzendorf ’s schoolmaster

Nicolaus Ludwig von ZINZENDORF (1700–1760) Lutheran Pietist and later Moravian: Herrnhut founder and protector of early Moravians and other persecuted Protestants, including Schwenkfelders (see CH #21)

Theodore J. FRELINGHUYSEN (1691–1747) Dutch Reformed: influenced by Pietist teaching; stoked revival in New Jersey; influenced Gilbert Tennent

Solomon STODDARD (1643–1729) Puritan Congregationalist: Jonathan Edwards’s grandfather and influential minister at Northampton Church

MORAVIANS: sent missionaries worldwide; guided John Wesley’s maturing faith on transatlantic trip; worship service brought Wesley brothers to spiritual revival

Charles WESLEY (1707–1788) Anglican; Methodism founder: inspired by Moravian missionaries; Holy Club founder; partner and friend of Whitefield

John WESLEY (1703–1791) Anglican; Methodism founder: converted at Moravian gathering; Holy Club member; friend, preaching partner, and sometime opponent of Whitefield; never met Edwards in person, but did abridge and adapt his theological works

George WHITEFIELD (1714–1770) Anglican and Methodist (later Calvinistic Methodist): joined Holy Club by Charles’s invitation; friend and partner of Wesleys in revival preaching; friends with and influenced theologically by Jonathan Edwards; friend of Gilbert Tennent

Gilbert TENNENT (1703–1764) Presbyterian: friend of Whitefield and Edwards; invited to New England to preach the First Great Awakening

Jonathan EDWARDS (1703–1758) Congregationalist with Puritan heritage: assistant to and ministerial successor of Stoddard; friend of Whitefield and Tennent; had no personal relationship with John Wesley but disagreed with his tactics and doctrine

By the editors

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #151 in 2024]

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